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Article 1, Section 8 of the United States Constitution vests Congress, and by extension the Executive and Judicial branches of our government, with the authority to engage in relations with the tribes, thereby firmly placing tribes within the constitutional fabric of our nation. When the governmental authority of tribes was first challenged in the 1830's, U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall articulated the fundamental principle that has guided the evolution of federal Indian law to the present: That tribes possess a nationhood status and retain inherent powers of self-government.
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A federally recognized tribe is an American Indian or Alaska Native tribal entity that is recognized as having a government-to-government relationship with the United States, with the responsibilities, powers, limitations, and obligations attached to that designation, and is eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
When tribes first encountered Europeans, they were a power to be reckoned with because the combined American Indian and Alaska Native population dominated the North American continent. Their strength in numbers, the control they exerted over the natural resources within and between their territories, and the European practice of establishing relations with countries other than themselves and the recognition of tribal property rights led to tribes being seen by exploring foreign powers as sovereign nations, who treatied with them accordingly.
Tribes possess all powers of self-government except those relinquished under treaty with the United States, those that Congress has expressly extinguished, and those that federal courts have ruled are subject to existing federal law or are inconsistent with overriding national policies. Tribes, therefore, possess the right to form their own governments; to make and enforce laws, both civil and criminal; to tax; to establish and determine membership (i.e., tribal citizenship); to license and regulate activities within their jurisdiction; to zone; and to exclude persons from tribal lands.
Congress has recognized the right of tribes to have a greater say over the development and implementation of federal programs and policies that directly impact on them and their tribal members. It did so by enacting two major pieces of legislation that together embody the important concepts of tribal self-determination and self-governance: The Indian Self-determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975, as amended (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.) and the Tribal Self-Governance Act of 1994 (25 U.S.C. 458aa et seq.). Through these laws, Congress accorded tribal governments the authority to administer themselves the programs and services usually administered by the BIA for their tribal members. It also upheld the principle of tribal consultation, whereby the federal government consults with tribes on federal actions, policies, rules or regulations that will directly affect them.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is a rarity among federal agencies. With roots reaching back to the earliest days of the republic, the BIA is almost as old as the United States itself. For most of its existence, the BIA has mirrored the public's ambivalence towards the nation's indigenous people. But, as federal policy has evolved from seeking the subjugation of American Indians and Alaska Natives into one that respects tribal self-determination, so, too, has the BIA's mission evolved into one that is based on service to and partnership with the tribes.
"The BIA's mission is to enhance the quality of life, to promote economic opportunity, and to carry out the responsibility to protect and improve the trust assets of American Indians, Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. We will accomplish this through the delivery of quality services, maintaining government-to-government relationships within the spirit of self-determination."
Using geolocation methods, each piece of equipment can be pinpointed to its exact location coordinates using a combination of sources. This includes using satellite imagery of the area and matching it with landmarks visible in the media images.
A variety of Russian manufactured arms and munitions not used by the Ukrainian military have appeared in the hands of separatists groups, including shoulder launched surface-to-air missiles (MANPADS), various types of rocket launchers, anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs), landmines, and various small arms.38Jonathan Ferguson and N.R. Jenzen-Jones, Raising Red Flags: An Examination of Arms & Munitions in the Ongoing Conflict in Ukraine, 2014 (Australia: Armament Research Services (ARES), November 18, 2014), -%20Raising%20Red%20Flags.pdf.
During key offensives, Russian forces in Ukraine have received cover from shelling from Russian territory. In the summer of 2014, the Ukrainian Border Service and the National Security and Defense Council reported more than 120 artillery attacks from Russia.76The Ukrainian government reports were collected by Bellingcat in a database: -kZSkwlfY8GnikeJdbCOh3RQ/edit?usp=sharing. Despite Russian government denials, with a combination of satellite data, crater analysis, and open source materials, one can establish that many of these attacks originated in Russia and not in the separatist controlled areas of Ukraine.
Special tools or skills to hide messages in digital files using variances of a null cipher are not necessary. An image or text block can be hidden under another image in a PowerPoint file, for example. Messages can be hidden in the properties of a Word file. Messages can be hidden in comments in Web pages or in other formatting vagaries that are ignored by browsers (Artz 2001). Text can be hidden as line art in a document by putting the text in the same color as the background and placing another drawing in the foreground. The recipient could retrieve the hidden text by changing its color (Seward 2004). These are all decidedly low-tech mechanisms, but they can be very effective.
The final example employs S-Tools, a program by Andy Brown that can hide information inside GIF, BMP, and WAV files. S-Tools uses least significant bit substitution in files that employ lossless compression, such as eight- or 24-bit color and pulse code modulation. S-Tools employs a password for least significant bit randomization and can encrypt data using the Data Encryption Standard (DES), International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), Message Digest Cipher (MDC), or Triple-DES (Johnson and Jajodia 1998A; Johnson and Jajodia 1998B; Wayner 2002). Figure 9 shows a signal level comparison between a WAV carrier file before and after the airport map was hidden. The original WAV file is 178,544 bytes in length, whereas the steganography WAV file is 178,298 bytes in length. Although the relatively small size of the figure makes it hard to see details, some differences are noticeable at the beginning and end of the audio sample (i.e., during periods of silence). (Some steganography tools have built-in intelligence to avoid the low-intensity portions of the signal.) Audio files are well suited to information hiding because they are usually relatively large, making it difficult to find small hidden items.
Steganalysis, the detection of steganography by a third party, is a relatively young research discipline with few articles appearing before the late-1990s. The art and science of steganalysis is intended to detect or estimate hidden information based on observing some data transfer and making no assumptions about the steganography algorithm (Chandramouli 2002). Detection of hidden data may not be sufficient. The steganalyst may also want to extract the hidden message, disable the hidden message so that the recipient cannot extract it, and/or alter the hidden message to send misinformation to the recipient (Jackson et al. 2003). Steganography detection and extraction is generally sufficient if the purpose is evidence gathering related to a past crime, although destruction and/or alteration of the hidden information might also be legitimate law enforcement goals during an on-going investigation of criminal or terrorist groups.
Chandramouli, R. Mathematical approach to steganalysis. In: Proceedings of the SPIE Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV, vol. 4675. International Society for Optical Engineering, San Jose, California, January 21-24, 2002, pp. 14-25. Also available: =877717.
Fridrich, J. and Goljan, M. Practical steganalysis of digital images: State of the art. In: Proceedings of the SPIE Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV, vol. 4675. International Society for Optical Engineering, San Jose, California, January 21-24, 2002, pp. 1-13. Also available:
Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., and Du, R. Steganalysis based on JPEG compatibility. In: Proceedings of the SPIE Multimedia Systems and Applications IV, Special Session on Theoretical and Practical Issues in Digital Watermarking and Data Hiding, vol. 4518. International Society for Optical Engineering, Denver, Colorado, August 21-22, 2001, pp. 275-280. Also available:
Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., and Hogea, D. New methodology for breaking steganographic techniques for JPEGs. In: Proceedings of the SPIE Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V, vol. 5020. International Society for Optical Engineering, Santa Clara, California, January 21-24, 2003A, pp. 143-155. Also available:
Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., and Hogea, D. Steganalysis of JPEG images: Breaking the F5 algorithm. Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Information Hiding (IH 2002). F. A. P. Petitcolas, ed., Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, October 7-9, 2002B. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 310-323. Also available:
Jackson, J. T., Gregg, H., Gunsch, G. H., Claypoole, R. L., and Lamont, G. B. Blind Steganography detection using a computational immune system: A work in progress. International Journal of Digital Evidence [Online]. (Winter 2003) (December 21, 2003). 041b061a72